In memory of Comrade Amalendu Guho
Nagendra narayan Chaudhuri, prolific writer from Assam, what I know (or said in lighter note by NNC) that he was indulging in writing because of putting Goalpara in main stream Assam against ignorance and to connect it culturally with main stream Assam. The Second science fiction story in Assamese language was written by him and I still hold that "Rokhayan" is still best of 3 science stories in Assamese language till now. The urge to write in "main stream sanskritized Assamese" is justified as it was time of renascence period of modern Assamese nationalism.
And later many prominent writers from lower Assam put their contribution to Assamese literature. ie - in language of main stream "ASSAMESE".
But with sociopolitical changes, ethnic uprising, conflicts, influences of neo economic liberal economy etc,, we are witnessing an era of uprising and identity crisis around the world. So Northeast India also part of those many changes and unrest. Obviously in this whole process of global phenomenon, regional literature and cultural activities are under attack and under influences of neo-globalization.
In counter action in various fields in various countries, awareness, consciousness of new bourgeoisie, a progressive flow is evolved through in this process.
If Nagendra Narayan Chaudhuri had written for a cause, we have seen Shilobhadra, Mamoni roysom Goswami were came out with another conscious innovative efforts in their writings. They incorporated local, colloquial languages in their writings and experimented with it. Saurav Kumar Chaliha had written a story with full colloquial language , probably 1rst one to understand richness of these many colloquial languages of Assam, gave due respect to all these colloquial languages with his story" Hahichompa" and open a way to others or for future generation.
We see here two important factors in action.
Cultural hegemony and counter action of Subalterns.
"The initial, theoretic application of cultural domination was as a Marxist analysis of economic class (base and superstructure), which Antonio Gramsci developed to comprehend social class; hence, cultural hegemony proposes that the prevailing cultural norms of a society, which are imposed by the ruling class (bourgeois cultural hegemony), must not be perceived as natural and inevitable, but must be recognized as artificial social constructs (institutions, practices, beliefs, et cetera) that must be investigated to discover their philosophic roots as instruments of social-class domination. Hegemony is the geopolitical method of indirect imperial dominance, with which the hegemony (leader state) rules subordinate states, by the threat of intervention, an implied means of power, rather than by direct military force — that is, invasion, occupation, and annexation. Which is practice by imperialist order and neo liberal elite ruling class of every countries in this world."
So anything we see in day to day life that resembles above words, yes.. we are witnessing it in every hour of our life. Lumpen cultural practices are dominating and ruling the society and states are in stand by. Intellectuals have became pimps and opportunist.
The crisis of bourgeoisie is gone far deep, its suffocating for mass. The crisis in bourgeoisie lead to other dysfunctional syndromes of existing society, from moral and cultural degradation etc to all kind of mess.
There is nothing left for the whole majority of poor working class and peasants, only to do "halla boll", revolt against humiliations, to protest against in injustice.
"In Marxist theory, the civil sense of the term subaltern was first used by the Italian Communist intellectual Antonio Gramsci (1891–1937). In discussions of the meaning of the "subaltern" in Gramsci's writings, Spivak and others have argued that he used the word as a synonym for the proletariat (a code-word to deceive the prison censor to allow his manuscripts out the prison), but this interpretation has been contested, with evidence indicating that it was a novel concept in Gramsci's political theory. In several essays, the postcolonial critic Homi K. Bhabha, emphasized the importance of social power relations in defining subaltern social groups as oppressed, racial minorities whose social presence was crucial to the self-definition of the majority group; as such, subaltern social groups, nonetheless, also are in a position to subvert the authority of the social groups who hold hegemonic power."
"The Eurocentric discourse on Africa is in error, because those foundational paradigms, which inspired the study, in the first place, were rooted in the denial of African agency; political intellectualism bent on its own self-affirmation, rather than objective study. " — The Removal of Agency from Africa , this is true same way to Asia, and to Assam also.
In a simple way if Eurocentric, USAcentric "khana, pina, gana, nasna" etc embedded to bourgeoisie all the way, its created a relay race among bourgeois of all societies that divided under nationalism.
Trotsky illustrating the concept of "Uneven and combined development"
"...the entire history of mankind is governed by the law of uneven development. Capitalism finds various sections of mankind at different stages of development, each with its profound internal contradictions. The extreme diversity in the levels attained, and the extraordinary unevenness in the rate of development of the different sections of mankind during the various epochs, serve as the starting point of capitalism. Capitalism gains mastery only gradually over the inherited unevenness, breaking and altering it, employing therein its own means and methods. In contrast to the economic systems which preceded it, capitalism inherently and constantly aims at economic expansion, at the penetration of new territories, the surmounting of economic differences, the conversion of self-sufficient provincial and national economies into a system of financial interrelationships. Thereby it brings about their rapprochement and equalizes the economic and cultural levels of the most progressive and the most backward countries. Without this main process, it would be impossible to conceive of the relative leveling out, first, of Europe with Great Britain, and then, of America with Europe; the industrialization of the colonies, the diminishing gap between India and Great Britain, and all the consequences arising from the enumerated processes upon which is based not only the program of the Communist International but also its very existence. By drawing the countries economically closer to one another and leveling out their stages of development, capitalism, however, operates by methods of its own, that is to say, by anarchistic methods which constantly undermine its own work, set one country against another, and one branch of industry against another, developing some parts of world economy while hampering and throwing back the development of others. Only the correlation of these two fundamental tendencies – both of which arise from the nature of capitalism – explains to us the living texture of the historical process. Imperialism, thanks to the universality, penetrability, and mobility and the break-neck speed of the formation of finance capital as the driving force of imperialism, lends vigor to both these tendencies. Imperialism links up incomparably more rapidly and more deeply the individual national and continental units into a single entity, bringing them into the closest and most vital dependence upon each other and rendering their economic methods, social forms, and levels of development more identical. At the same time, it attains this “goal” by such antagonistic methods, such tiger-leaps, and such raids upon backward countries and areas that the unification and leveling of world economy which it has effected, is upset by it even more violently and convulsively than in the preceding epochs." - Leon Trotsky, The Third International After Lenin, part 1, section 4
To summarize above concept we witness:
[1) A more backward, primitive country would adopt parts of the culture of a more advanced, or more modern society, and a more advanced culture could also adopt or merge with parts of a more primitive culture – with good or bad effects.
2) Cultural practices, institutions, traditions and ways of life belonging to both very old and very new epochs and phases of human history were all combined, juxtaposed and linked together in a rather unique way, within one country.
3) In turn, this meant that one could not really say that different societies all developed simply through the same sort of linear sequence of necessary developmental stages, but rather that they could adopt/utilize the results of developments reached elsewhere, without going through all the previous evolutionary stages which led up to those results. Some countries could thus "skip", "telescope" or "compress" developmental stages which other countries took hundreds of years to go through, or, very rapidly carry through a modernization process that took other countries centuries to achieve.
4) Different countries could both aid or advance the socio-economic progress of other countries through trade, subsidies and contributing resources, or block and brake other countries as competitors from making progress by preventing the use of capital, technology, trading routes, labour, land or other kinds of resources.
5) In Trotsky's theory of imperialism, the domination of one country by another does not mean that the dominated country is prevented from development altogether, but rather that it develops mainly according to the requirements of the dominating country. For example, an export industry will develop around mining and farm products in the dominated country, but the rest of the economy is not developed, so that the country's economy becomes more unevenly developed than it was before, rather than achieving balanced development. Or, a school system is set up with foreign assistance, but the schools teach only the messages that the dominating country wants to hear.
6) The main tendencies and trends occurring at the level of world society as a whole, could be also found in each separate country, where they combined with unique local trends – but this was a locally specific “mix”, so that some world trends asserted themselves more strongly or faster, others weaker and slower in each specific country. Thus, a country could be very advanced in some areas of activity, but at the same time comparatively retarded in other areas. One effect was that the response to the same events of world significance could be quite different in different countries, because the local people attached different "weightings" to experiences and therefore drew different conclusions.]
Now in this above situation,
"Lokhaitara" by Priynka Das and "The chair" by Pradyumno kumar gogoi are fresh wind and cool lime juice for hot days in summer.
Both stands completely at opposite side, but at the same time two significant innovative intuitions are unfold, two bonded by dialectics. Both determined and constructive in their approach. Both careless to limping literature, able to create flawless tales for readers.
"Lokhaitara" is unleashed the journey again that once Saurav Kumar Chaliha initiated. Its like a traditional takeover. Priyanka das is locating and start building a bridge to its reader layers on layers in her verses. Colloquial expressions tend to sneak in as writers, being part of a society, are influenced by the way people speak in that society. Naturally, they are bound to add colloquial expressions in their vocabulary. However, writers use such expressions intentionally too as it gives their works a sense of realism, this is something Shilobhadra and MRG had practiced. But Priyanka Das has chosen the path of "Hahichompa" to establish "Kamrupia, Goalporia, Koch rajbongsi" etc as all can be mode of totalitarian expression. A geographical diverse Diaspora /phenomenon like Northeast India will be flourish only by healthy development of all spoken language/dialect of many communities and use of Colloquial languages in literature, film etc or in any art forms from this Diaspora. Interestingly this process is complete opposite to that NNC had once want to establish. Just to remember also "Ningni Bhaoria" also, an wonderful our own Charlie Chaplin, a vagabond character in "Goalporia" literature which never got its due from main stream, probably never attempted in film, theatre etc.
"Lokhaitara" a river came as a metaphor, it has provocation, storylines in many dimensions. Socio Political annotation, rudeness in narrative, yet very sensitive outlook, hurried but short objective words play is demonstrated with confidence of writer . This "verse" has gone to many parts... like "Lokhaitara" 1, 2, 3 etc.....disclosed seriousness in approach of writer, love for mother tongue and own land, loyalty to a language with a deep sense of responsibility. First, with its first layer, that language, reader will be hit back by its language. Because we are usually not prepared to accept what can be described as counter subalterns view. We are entitled to accept only ..only main stream or whispered daily by bigger cooperates power to live through under cultural hegemony of cultural imperialism. Yes, if a reader able cross the barrier of the language of this verse or unlock the usual mind set, he/she may be allowed to step in next phase of "Lokhaitara", that is content. When one hooked in the content he/she probably able swim in lyrical ocean of its narrative, so words now slowly, gradually unveiled to reader, it will awaken and teleport reader to another realm. Now hang on there, and listen, sound of the river, sense the rawness of soil and possibly in this phase the reader will be connected to the realm of "Lokhaitara".
"Lokheitara pugly", "lokheitarai dhowa dag" and "aar ekbar lokheitara" are metaphorical, beautiful emblem of a river, providing an abstract or representational pictorial image that represents a concept, like a moral truth, or an allegory, or a love tale of an young couple, a society.
বগা ঢকঢকে চাদৰখান মেলি
ব্লেক এন্ড হোৱাইট সপোনটু উৰে যায়৷
পিছে পিছে লখেইতৰাই দাউৰে৷
থাপমাৰি ধৰা সপোনটু পিছলি যায়৷
লখেইতৰাই চায় থাকে সপোনটু৷
"Lokheitara pugly" is a wonderful representation of a river in human form, a restless, wild and independent soul. Someone wild at heart, free by soul.
Lokheitara is running after a "black and white" dream, in this colorful world "black and white" dream is a choice. She has refused "colors". For her those imposed colors are just river mud, she never has care for them.
A sensual expression for a clear, transparent dream and freedom. Lokheitara, the river wish to fly, because she believe" the dream" has a sky. More then live of a shadowy river with mud, she has willingness to escape for sunshine and rain.
flow of lokheitara is halted by another reality. The dream became an irony.
সপোনটুৰ আকাশ এখান আছে৷
বৈৰহান পৰে,ৰ'দ দেই৷
সেই বৈৰহানোত লখেই ভিজে৷
ব্লেক এন্ড হোৱাইটটুৰ পিছে পিছে ৷
বৈৰহানোৰ পিছোৰ ৰ'দটুৰ কথা
লখেইৰ খেয়ালোত নাহে৷
ৰ'দটুৰ জিভেই চেলকি নিয়া
শুখে কৰাল বান্ধা
লখেইৰ ৰূপ দেখি
লখেই নিজে কান্দে৷
She is trying to manage her own perish and start a complete negation with herself.
কান্দানটু বাজি থাকে৷
ফাটা ঢোল এটা কুবেই
লখেই কান্দানটু নুশনা হবা খোজে৷
Lokheitara, who live through a black and white dream, in a contradictory reality sunshine mocked her, rain forgot her, she is called now as "witch" ,"insane lokheitara".
Her freedom is buried.
From - :lokheitarai dhowa dag"
ধান শুখেবাৰ দিপ্ৰে
চোকা ৰ'দ জাকতকৰিও চোকা নখটুইদি
সি আচৰি দিছিল তাইৰ ফাটা চোলাটুইদি অলে থাকা বগা মঙাহখেন্তি ৷
Sensual words play is curated here with wild erotic undertone. The aggression and submission both in display. In a casual harsh day , hot sun up there, those forces of nature strikes physically two organism, two living beings with opposite sex in wilderness. The act of original sins.
ৰঙা পৰা চিনটো পিহি পিহি ফিৰদিনা তাই পানীত নামছিল,
ধুই নিবা দিছিল লখেইতৰাক ৰঙাৰ পে কজলে পৰা দাগটু ৷
লখেইতৰাই বুজলাক !
মানুহগিলাই নুবুজলাক ৷
তাইৰ দাগটু চাবাকলেগি সেহঁতোৰ টানা-আজৰাত আৰু এটা দাগ হ'ল,
তাইৰ কইলজেত ৷
বুকুৰ ভিতেৰোত ৷
In a calmness after thunderstorm, she submitted herself to "Lokheitara". Water, the original source of life, she has merged in there in a lonely act. Conflict is evolved between the fear for constituted, manipulative social strata in a specific time of history and temptation, longingness, she is bestowed upon by nature. . She is condemned for life.
Probably since time of "Draupodi", she is carrying a scar, the time when dwindling matriarchy is taken over by patriarchy till now.
Remembering that famous feminist jab "Fat diya basumoti patale lukau", from story of Sita's returning to earth here as resembles to this verse. We see, Sita, A female deity of agricultural fertility, according to the Ramayana, Sita was discovered in a furrow when Janaka was ploughing. Sita is considered to be the child of the Mother Earth, produced by the union between the king and the land. Sita is a personification of the Earth's fertility, abundance, and well-being.
After humiliation caused by Lord Rama, Sita sought final refuge in the arms of her mother earth. Hearing her plea for release from an unjust world and from a life that had rarely been happy, the Earth dramatically split open, appeared in form of a woman and took Sita away.
গইধলাবেলা মায়েকে বহি থাকলাক
লখেইতৰাৰ পাৰোত ৷
লখেইতৰাক শাও দি ৷
ফিৰদিনা লখেইতৰাই তাইক
তুলি ধৰলাক উপেৰোত ৷
দাগটু নহা কৰি --
মায়েকে তিত্তেও শাও দি থাকলাক ৷
Empathetic view of mother here in this verse at the same time we see anguish, its helplessness of women in a patriarchal society.
ইত্তেও কেতেবা লখেইতৰা গন্ধে ৷
তাই তাই !!!
Her body is drowned and later is floated above Lokheitara. Ultimately she became Lokheitara, the river.
From : "aru ekbar lokheitara."
সৰু বাঁহীটুত ওঁঠ দুটে লগেই
সি সুৰ তুলছিল ভালপাৱাৰ৷
নদীৰ সিপাৰে কাপোৰ ধুই থাকা তাই
মিচিক-মাচাক কে তাইৰ ওঁঠোত
A tale of murder, mystery and politics is carried by Lokheitara.
We can witness richness of word power in this "Kamrupia Langauge". In deliberation we can argue that which way main stream Assamese language wish to evolve? Retaining Its current sanskritized version or is it ready to embrace all other colloquial languages of Assam? Answer is almost negative. An initiative taken by Dr Devabrat Sarma, as "Oxomiya jatiya abhidhan" with inclusion of many colloquial languages of Assam. It is late approach toward build a progressive nationality, but an important approach to give respect to colloquial languages of Assam.
তাৰ সুৰটুই ঠন ধৰে…
মহমহকে গোন্ধ এটা উঠে
What will be the smell of a couple when they are deeply in a relationship? This "Kamrupia Langauge" is provide us a word "MOH-MOHAI". Its prolific, phonically beautiful.
সি জানা নাছিল
কোনো মাও বা গুৱেভাৰাক…
জংঘালোৰ মাজোত অধিকাৰ বিচৰাৰ
হেপাঁহো নাছিল তাৰ
সি চিনি প নাছিল কোনো
জলফেই ৰঙোৰ পোছাক পিন্ধা
তেজেইদি হাত ধোৱা মানুহ৷
কলপইতে ৰঙোৰ সোপান এটাহে
Lokheitara makes ripple through socio political scenario of Assam also. Static rhythm of life torn apart by collateral damages. The man play flute ultimately decide to become revolutionary, who wish to wear olive green trouser and shirts (or freedom fighter) with out knowing name of Mao and Che Guevara. But He is killed for his desire to become revolutionary by those gun men. He is hunted down finally.
সেটু পাৰে তাইৰ মুখোত সোপা দি
ৰঙগিলা তাইৰ পে আজৰি লৈ গুচি গেছিল সেহাঁত…
দমৰাটুই কিন্তু হেম্বেই আছিল৷
লখেইতৰাও বৈ আছিল
জোতাৰ গচাকোত ভাঙা বাঁহীটু
বুকুত সামেৰি সুতেৰি লৈ
তাই মোলান পৰা আত্মাটু চোঁচৰেই গুচি গেল তাৰ পে৷
Story continues something similar way as stories of states that controlled by AFPSA law , she is taken to jungle, raped, colors of her life is snatched brutally. Another story of "Manoroma" is mirrored probably. Dumped, crushed and silenced.A man who played flute is silenced.
গোন্ধখিনি কিন্তু থাকি গেল
একেই বতাহোত কঁপা
গণ্ডাই-গণ্ডাই সৰি পৰা
তাই আৰু তাৰ
মিচিক-মাচাক হাঁহি !!
But that smell "Mohmohai" is retained. The smell "Mohmohai", the splendor of antiquity is keep possessing others, light up hearts eternally.
In this case, in this era when a society is failed to see laughter of young people that accumulated in high size, its then collective failures of a zombie society, which is thoroughly became impotent and opportunistic.
"Lokheitara" saga is goes on, author of Lokheitara have written other more verses of Lokheitara.
Now lets look in another literary piece "The chair" by Pradyumno kumar Gogoi.
Its an wonderful observation and intelligent creation. Probably I have not read in Assamese language such emblematic representation of media frenzy world and accurate appropriation of current propaganda model so intelligibly and as a profound literary piece which has ability to claim its authority on time.
মানুহজনৰ ঘৰত এখনো চকী নাই। এদিন তেওঁৰ চকীত বহিবলৈ মন গ'ল। সেয়ে তেওঁ চকী এখন বনাবলৈ অৰ্ডাৰ দিয়ালে। চকীত বহাৰো বিভিন্ন ধৰণ আছে- গাটো হলাই অথবা আঁউজি মূৰটো ওপৰলৈ কৰি, ভৰি দুটা তুলি লৈ মুখখন আঁঠু দুটাত গুজি, অথবা ভৰি দুটা মাটিত থৈ ,... , ... ...- মানুহজনে ভাবিবলৈ ধৰিলে চকীখন সাজি হোৱাৰ পাছত কেনেদৰে বহিব!
"self-reflexiveness, metafiction, eclecticism, redundancy, multiplicity, discontinuity, intertextuality, parody, the dissolution of character and narrative instance, the erasure of boundaries, and the destabilization of the reader" , these are characteristics of postmodernism and one might attribute to literary magic realism also.
"The chair ", a story deploys the ambiguity and dubious narrator characteristic of modernism, along with some suspense and humor elements. the story, in reading whose meaning could change dramatically depending on his/her belief on social system on each reading, one may argued further for socio-economic aspect of the story.
[A postmodern literary work tends not to conclude with the neatly tied-up ending as is often found in modernist literature . Postmodern authors tend to celebrate chance over craft, and further employ a style self-consciously and systematically draw attention to a work's status as an artifact. It poses questions about the relationship between fiction and reality, usually using irony and self-reflection to undermine the writer's authority. Another characteristic of postmodern literature is the questioning of distinctions between high and low culture through the use of pastiche, the combination of subjects and genres not previously deemed fit for literature.]
So they intend to became "pogha singa moh, ji sab tohilong korar moti goti rakhe".
পাছদিনাখনৰ ঘৰৰ গাৰ্ডেনত, বাৰান্দাত মানুহজনক চকীখনত বহি থকা দেখা গ'ল। ৰাস্তাৰে পাৰ হৈ যোৱা সকলোৱে তেওঁক গাড়ীৰ গ্লাচ নমাই অভিবাদন-অভিনন্দন জনাই থৈ যায়, পুলিচবিলাকে চেল্যুট আৰু ঠেলাৱালাবিলাকে ভৰি মালিচ কৰি দিয়েহি। বেণ্ডপাৰ্টিবিলাক তেওঁৰ ঘৰ পায় হৈ যাওঁতে প্ৰশস্তি গাই যায়। চিত্ৰশিল্পীবিলাকে পদূলীত ৰৈ ঘণ্টা ধৰি তেওঁৰ ছবি আঁকি পাৰ কৰে আৰু ফটোগ্ৰাফাৰবিলাকে বিভিন্ন এংগোলত ফটো উঠায়। মানুহজনে নিৰ্বিকাৰ চাৱনীৰে সকলোকে সন্তুষ্ট কৰে।
We found Kafkaesque element in "the chair", "the chair" apply real-life occurrences and situations that are incomprehensibly complex and illogical. The hopelessness and absurdity as emblematic of existentialism are seen in the story. Themes of alienation and persecution although present in "the chair", reading "the chair" while focusing on the futility of characters' struggles reveals writer's play of humour, writer of the story is not necessarily commenting on problems, but rather pointing out how people tend to invent problems. It is noticed writer has created malevolent, absurd worlds in his other creations also and it can be proposed that writer's inspirations for characteristic situations came both from growing up in a megalomaniac media frenzy and living in a bourgeois democratic state.
ৰেকৰ্ডিং ষ্টুডিঅ', এফ.এম.বিলাক তেওঁৰ প্ৰশস্তিগীতবোৰেৰে উত্তাল হৈ থাকিল, তেওঁৰ নামত অজস্ৰ চিৰিয়েল উলাল, 'বহিখোৱা' নামেৰে চিনেমা নিৰ্মাণ হৈ উলাল- ব্লেকত টিকট বিক্ৰী হ'ল আৰু ব্লেকাৰবিলাকে কেইবাদিনলৈ ভগৱানৰ সলনি তেওঁৰ নাম লৈ থাকিল, আলোচনীবিলাকৰ কবিতা শিতানত তেওঁৰ প্ৰশস্তিসমূহে আলোড়ন সৃষ্টি কৰিলে, একঝিবিশ্যন ৱালবিলাক তেওঁ চকীত বহি থকাৰ ফটোগ্ৰাফী-পেইণ্টিঙেৰে ভৰি পৰিল, গুণমুগ্ধসকলে ডাইনিং ৰুমবিলাক তেওঁৰ ছবিৰে সজাবলৈ লাগিল।
'বহিখোৱা' নামেৰে এটা ট্ৰেণ্ড-ফেশ্যনৰ সৃষ্টি হ'ল।
জুইশলা বাকচৰ পৰা চিমেণ্ট কোম্পানীৰ এডভাৰটাইজলৈকে চকীৰ ছবি দেখা গ'ল- মজবুত চেয়াৰ কে লিয়ে মজবুত ফাউণ্ডেশ্যন। বাতৰী কাকতৰ চাৰ্কুলেশ্যন-নিউজ চেনেলৰ টিআৰপি তেওঁৰ ওপৰত নিৰ্ভৰ কৰা হ'ল। অফিচ-বজাৰ-বাছষ্টেণ্ড-বাৰ-বেশ্যালয়-মদৰ আড্ডা জমি উঠিল। মদাহীবিলাকে মাজৰাতি তেওঁৰ নামত দম্ভালি মাৰি ফুৰিলে। তেওঁৰ নাম লটাৰী খেলা হ'ল।
The story include instances in which media overpower people, often in a surreal, nightmarish milieu which evokes feelings of senselessness, disorientation, and helplessness. Characters in the story setting often lack a clear course of action to escape a rabbit hole situation. Now fascism continues to seep into today’s political events and consciousness in a way that means that it is absolutely necessary to strike back. And that is the point, the story evaluates that people are trapped as being obsessives and yet coporates media/bureaucracy/ruling class are performing a vital public service in preventing all of us from thinking that we, as a nation and people, are somehow better than others and that we therefore have some inalienable right to rule.
এদিন ৰাতিপুৱা তেওঁৰ ঘৰৰ আগত গোটখোৱা গুণমুগ্ধ-ফটোগ্ৰাফাৰ-সাংবাদিক-চিত্ৰকৰসকলে আৱিষ্কাৰ কৰিলে- বহিখোৱাই হাস্যকৰভাৱে ভৰি আঁউজা চকীখনত ভৰি দুটা 'দ'ৰ দৰে ভাঁজ কৰি বহাখনত মূৰটো থৈ শুই আছে। গুণমুগ্ধসকলে হাঁহি হাঁহি বাগৰি পৰিল, ৰাস্তাৰে পাৰ হৈ যোৱা গাড়ীবিলাকৰ গ্লাচ গুচাই মানুহবিলাকে মানুহজনক লৈ কৌতুক কৰিলে, পুলিচ-ঠেলাৱালাবিলাকে হাঁহি মুখেৰে চাদা মোহাৰি মোহাৰি পায়চাৰি কৰি ফুৰিলে, বেণ্ডপাৰ্টিবিলাকে হাস্যকৰ গান এটা ঠাওকতে সাজি পৰিৱেশন কৰিলে, ৰেকৰ্ডিং ষ্টুডিঅ'-এফ.এম.বিলাকত হাস্যকৰ গানেৰে উত্তাল হৈ পৰিল, তেওঁৰ নামত অজস্ৰ ব্যংগ চিৰিয়েল উলাল, 'বহিখোৱা ৰিটাৰ্ণছ' নামৰ ব্যংগ চিনেমা নিৰ্মাণ হ'ল আৰু ব্লেকত টিকট বিক্ৰী হ'ল, একজিবিশ্যন ৱালবিলাক বিভিন্ন হাস্যকৰ পেইণ্টিং-ফটোগ্ৰাফীৰে ভৰি পৰিল, গুণমুগ্ধবিলাকে তেওঁৰ শুই থকা হাস্যকৰ ফটোসমুহ শোৱাৰুমত আঁৰি ৰাখিলে, আলোচনীসমূহত ব্যংগ কবিতাই আলোড়ন তুলিলে, নিউজ চেনেলসমূহত হাস্য-ব্যংগানুষ্ঠান পৰিৱেশন হ'ল, বাতৰি কাকতত কাৰ্টুন ছাপা হ'ল, অফিচ-বজাৰ-বাছ ষ্টেণ্ড-বাৰ-মদৰ আদ্দাবিলাক কৌতুক-গজৱেৰে ভৰি পৰিল... ... ...
Noam Chomsky and Edward S. Herman have established a "propaganda model" which purports to explain this bias.
"The hypothesis is that the process is decentralized and operates as a confluence of factors, that includes the overt pressure from owners and advertisers,but also by the gradual internalization of the biases and values of the corporate owners, leading to self-censorship. Other factors include the tendency of journalists to avoid doing original research, instead obtaining news from the same few wire services."
Bagdikian notes that in the 1980s, "less than 1 percent of all corporations, have 87 percent of all sales. [The corporates] are the aristocrats of the American Industrial economy; the remaining 359,500, in terms of their national power, are the peasantry." This conflict continues to arise as "dominant media companies are further [integrating] into the ruling forces of the economy." The directorates of major companies interlock with others and control the content of multiple dominating media and information distribution (i.e., newspapers, magazines, radio and television companies, book publishers, film industries, and even multinational banking investors). They become directly influenced by still other powerful industry, creating the "Endless Chain" of mass media and economic aristocracy (Wardrip-Fruin, 479).
First presented in their 1988 book Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media,
[the propaganda model views the private media as businesses interested in the sale of a product—readers and audiences—to other businesses (advertisers) rather than that of quality news to the public. Describing the media's "societal purpose", Chomsky writes, "... the study of institutions and how they function must be scrupulously ignored, apart from fringe elements or a relatively obscure scholarly literature".
The theory postulates five general classes of "filters" that determine the type of news that is presented in news media. These five classes are: Ownership of the medium, Medium's funding sources, Sourcing Flak and Anti-communism and fear ideology."]
"The chair" proclaim here that it seems enjoy to stepped in as opposite side and ready to face them unquestionably and unconditionally.
It is witnessed many writers/artist/filmmaker/socio political critic etc from new generation in various field already are taking the grip firm-way. Literature, film, poetry etc from NE States in safe hands and they refused to do "sorbit sorvan" ....damn ..some real bad ass boys n girls....... :P
no way out from conformism, opportunism and careerist engagement in creative filed , but to establish a forward looking dynamic culture should be in agenda.
[quoted text are taken from Internet source]